Friday, July 19, 2013

Understanding why it is important to give immunization vaccines like BCG, DPT, OPV, Hep B. and HIB V always boils down to tracing the susceptible agent that cause this disease to occur especially to infants. Knowing their nature is important for people to know in order to defend themselves to having the right immunization vaccines for them to be protected.

1. Measles is a highly communicable disease with the history of generalized blotchy rash that last for 3 days or more. Fever is above 38 degrees Celsius or the patient is hot to touch. One can experience cough, runny nose as well as red eyes or conjunctivitis when experiencing this kind of disease. It is taken from a virus and its reservoir is of course, we, humans. It can be taken from close respiratory contact and aerosolized droplets. It would take 4 days before until 2 days after rash that transmissions occur. It takes lifelong after attack immunity in order to save the lives of the victim. Crowding and low socio-economic status has something to do with this disease.

2. Tuberculosis is in a child with history of contact with a suspect or confirmed case of pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also be taken from a child who does not return to normal health after measles or whooping cough. Loss of weight, cough and wheeze which dose not respond to antibiotic therapy for acute respiratory disease, abdominal swelling with a hard, painless mass and free fluid, painful firm or soft swelling in a group of superficial lymph nodes, any bond or joint lesion or slow onset and signs suggesting meningitis or disease in the central nervous system are manifestations of tuberculosis.

It is due to the bacteria called "Mycobacterium tuberculosis". It can be found in man as well as in diseased cattle. It can be transmitted through droplet, infection that is through inhalation of bacilli from patients. It is transmitted to persons who excretes tubercle bacilli which is communicable. It degree of communicability depends upon the number of bacilli in the air, the virulence of bacilli and the environmental conditions like overcrowding. Risk factor for infection is due to low access to care immunodeficiency, malnutrition, alcoholism and diabetes.

3. Diphtheria is an acute pharyngitis, acute nasopharyngitis or acute laryngitis with a pseudo membrane. It comes from "Corynebacterim diptheria. It is present in man. Transmission of the disease is through respiratory droplets form dischare of a case or carrier. The disease may last for 2-3 weeks or maybe shortened in patients with antibiotics treatment. The transmission is increased in schools, hospitals, household and in crowded areas. The duration of the immunity is usually lifelong.

4. Pertussis occurs when a child has a history of severe of cough and history of persistent 2 weeks or more weeks of cough, fits of coughing and cough which is followed by vomiting. It is caused by "Bordetella pertusis". It is in man. It can be get from direct contact with discharges from respiratory mucous membrane of infected persons, airborne route probably by droplets and indirect contact with articles freshly soiled with the discharges of infected persons. This disease is highly communicable in early catarrhal stage, before paroxysmal cough. Antibiotics may shorten the period of communicability from 7 days after exposure to 3 weeks after onset of typical paroxysms to only 5 to 7 days after onset of therapy. Its natural immunity is lifelong. Risk factor of the infection includes the younger age and crowding. 


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